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Table 1 Bend angle and absorptivity for various process conditions

From: An integrated FEM-ANN model for laser bending process with inverse estimation of absorptivity

Data No. Power (W) Velocity (mm/min) SD (mm) Beam Diameter (mm) A: Average Bend Angle
Experimental study (°)
Coefficient of Variation (%) B: Bend Angle Numerical simulation (°) Absolute Error = \( \left|\frac{\left(A-B\times 100\right)}{A}\right| \) (%) Absorptivity
1 300 1000 20 3.87 1.07 4.11 1.10 2.40 0.63
2 300 1000 30 5.81 0.73 3.14 0.72 0.75 0.67
3 300 1000 40 7.74 0.49 4.6 0.47 3.25 0.72
4 300 1000 50 9.68 0.21 24.86 0.20 3.18 0.725
5 300 2000 20 3.87 0.84 3.96 0.84 0.04 0.72
6 300 2000 30 5.81 0.31 3.77 0.31 1.40 0.74
7 300 2000 40 7.74 0.12 18.09 0.13 4.17 0.8
8 300 2000 50 9.68 0.05 29.31 0.05 3.54 0.875
9 300 3000 20 3.87 0.6 19.31 0.62 3.83 0.83
10 300 3000 30 5.81 0.14 18.62 0.15 4.44 0.84
11 300 3000 40 7.74 0.09 20.56 0.10 4.15 0.95
12 300 3000 50 9.68 a a a a 0.98
13 300 5000 20 3.87 0.26 2.46 0.25 3.35 0.81
14 300 5000 30 5.81 0.16 33.25 0.17 4.87 0.98
15 300 5000 40 7.74 a a a a 0.99
16 300 5000 50 9.68 a a a a 1.0
17 500 1000 20 3.87 0.99 7.31 0.95 4.35 0.825
18 500 1000 30 5.81 0.94 1.44 0.95 0.57 0.8
19 500 1000 40 7.74 0.75 18.69 0.78 4.11 0.6
20 500 1000 50 9.68 0.53 12.94 0.55 4.08 0.54
21 500 2000 20 3.87 1.42 15.45 1.35 4.77 0.52
22 500 2000 30 5.81 1 7.58 0.97 2.54 0.59
23 500 2000 40 7.74 0.72 13.98 0.71 1.24 0.66
24 500 2000 50 9.68 0.4 0.67 0.41 3.30 0.68
25 500 3000 20 3.87 1.27 6.63 1.14 1.91 0.57
26 500 3000 30 5.81 0.84 15.93 0.85 0.74 0.67
27 500 3000 40 7.74 0.34 12.29 0.38 1.10 0.69
28 500 3000 50 9.68 0.14 0 0.14 2.26 0.715
29 500 5000 20 3.87 0.74 11.42 0.74 0.65 0.625
30 500 5000 30 5.81 0.26 22.3 0.34 3.43 0.67
31 500 5000 40 7.74 0.12 19.97 0.12 3.00 0.785
32 500 5000 50 9.68 0.05 33.44 0.05 1.58 0.88
33 700 1000 20 3.87 0.35 4.89 0.34 4.16 0.8
34 700 1000 30 5.81 0.57 12.18 0.56 2.36 0.79
35 700 1000 40 7.74 0.75 3.75 0.72 4.51 0.8
36 700 1000 50 9.68 0.64 17.7 0.67 4.69 0.9
37 700 2000 20 3.87 1.05 6.32 1.02 2.39 0.8
38 700 2000 30 5.81 1.3 13.67 1.33 2.29 0.78
39 700 2000 40 7.74 0.96 5.85 1.00 4.34 0.57
40 700 2000 50 9.68 0.8 18.81 0.78 2.78 0.64
41 700 3000 20 3.87 1.68 2.02 1.61 4.16 0.67
42 700 3000 30 5.81 1.16 9.42 1.18 1.72 0.55
43 700 3000 40 7.74 1.1 16.09 1.05 4.84 0.68
44 700 3000 50 9.68 0.52 28.03 0.52 0.36 0.75
45 700 5000 20 3.87 0.94 30.25 0.92 2.24 0.5
46 700 5000 30 5.81 0.9 5.45 0.89 1.41 0.63
47 700 5000 40 7.74 0.72 6.99 0.73 0.88 0.76
48 700 5000 50 9.68 0.18 15.48 0.18 2.16 0.71
   Average error =2.77 %
  1. a = insignificant bend angle